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Move to new home (已经转移新的部落格)




图51:Penang Goldsmith Association (Ta Kam Hong)

The Penang Goldsmith Association or Penang Ta Kam Hong at Lebuh Muntri, Penang, is the biggest Chinese goldsmith association in Malaysia. Founded in 1832, it is also the oldest. Its members are mostly goldsmiths of Cantonese descent who came from Guangdong Province in southern China from the earth 19th century right to the early 20th century. Within its premises is the guild temple, Voo Cheng Koo Mew, built in 1903 to worship Wu Ching, the patron deity of goldsmiths.



图52:Ng Fook Tong School (originally 1819, rebuilt 1898)

The Ng Fook Tong (Five Luck Villa), also known as the United Association of Cantonese Districts, was founded in 1819 as a school for Chinese. The society was originally located in a building in a different part of the city, but was moved to the present site after Keng Kwee, a secret society leader, bought the property in the late 1893.



图53:Benggali Mosque

Benggali Mosque is a mosque along Leith Street. There was already a mosque on that site going back to the earliest days of the British settlement of George Town. The land was granted by the British East India Company to the sepoys who arrived to serve the British military, as site for their mosque, in 1803. The present mosque was built for the Benggali community that migrated to Penang towards the end of the 19th Century, and formed a settlement that extended from Leith Street all the way to Argyll Road. The Benggali Mosque was built in 1958 and was officiated by Tunku Abdul Rahman, the then Prime Minister of Malaya, on 26 December 2008. The mosque is a charming fusion of Muslim and International architectural styles.



图54:Luban Gumiao(魯班古廟)

檳城魯班行是大馬目前碩果僅存的魯班古廟,數年前已在國家古蹟法令下列為受保護國家A級文物建築。不過,擁有漂亮建築和豐富歷史底蘊的魯班行,卻感嘆他們身為喬治市重要古蹟資產,但就是少了州政府的關懷和呵護。這班希望魯班精神可以源遠流長的工匠師傅們都異口同聲表示:州政府眼裡不應只有潮州會館和邱公司,認為只有這些宗祠家廟可升級為旅遊景點,我們魯班古廟其實一點都不差。午後的魯班行內,廟內除了有滿室從天井灑下的陽光,便是後院傳來的麻將聲。在雀友們此起彼落的“碰”、“吃糊”聲中,一群魯班行的理事們在後院度量位子,以騰出魯班行古董展示廊。這個展示廊最遲在今年底就會完成。“計劃已經講了10年,今年再不實現,恐怕古廟裡的古董木雕都要被白蟻吃光蛀完,壞無可壞了。這事多年前已向前朝政府反應,要求撥款,但一直沒有回應。現在政權在民聯政府手上,他們連魯班行都沒到過呢。這樣等下去不是辦法,我們只好自己集資籌建,自己救自己了。”魯班行副主席趙德友告訴我們。光緒元年珍貴古董他們打開後院儲存室大門,向記者展示裡頭的珍貴古董時解說,魯班行的全套光緒元年(1854年)花轎、儀仗用具、各類木雕等,都是無價之寶。尤其是用柚木雕成的大花轎,便是粉雕玉琢的精工之作。這些花轎和儀仗過去是魯班行從前進行例年神會遊行時使用的。主席伍國樑一邊察看這些木雕一邊惋惜地說:魯班行年代久遠,多屆理事意見不同,加上他們沒有雄厚財勢,所以古廟內很多應該保養的古董文物,都沒有獲得足夠的保護。儘管如此,他們會盡力維護這些先人留下來的無價之寶。除了這些鎖在密室的古董,魯班行內排排擺放的漂亮黑色酸枝椅,目前可是奇貨可居的古董家具。這些酸木家具目前動輒整套數萬令吉,但在魯班行,它們卻是供訪客歇息的尋常椅子。擺在兩個櫃子內的古早木匠工具,也是當今罕見的古董工具。和一般百年歷史背景的行業組織不同的是,魯班行集合宗祠和古廟於一個屋簷下。魯班行成立於 207年前,魯班古廟則建於122年前。這裡的成員都是廣東籍貫的工匠(建築業行友)和木匠(木工及家具業者),百多名行友之中,最年輕的已經是四十幾歲的新中年。雖然如此,這並不代表古廟成員青黃不接。其中一名最年輕的新中年行友是總務梁福唐,他積極傳承自己的木雕功夫。他的本業是美術雕刻師及家具裝修業,去年開始以魯班行名義開班授徒,教授公眾木雕技巧。他教授的第一屆畢業生,已可雕出一些像樣的作品,包括古時神遊用上的木牌匾。傳承木雕功救古董梁福唐說,像他這樣的雕刻師傅已經買少見少。他師承上海籍雕刻師父,學會牌匾、神龕和花草雕刻,也懂修護古董,這些手藝和技巧正是魯班行急需用上的。他舉例說,古廟裡那些刻著“肅靜”、“迴避”字樣的百年牌匾,因年代久遠被白蟻蛀食,但還好他能夠把這些遺憾一一修補復新。在工業化的年代,像魯班行這些仍舊掌握木匠工匠真功夫的行友已經不多。秉承著魯班先師強調的尊師重道關係,魯班古廟和它裡頭的成員會繼續把這種精神傳下去,因為他們是名副其實的喬治市活古蹟。



图55:Shih Chung School



图56:Khoo Kongsi

The Khoo Kongsi (邱公司) is a large Chinese clanhouse with elaborate and highly ornamented architecture, a mark of the dominant presence of the Chinese in Penang. The famous Khoo Kongsi is the grandest clan temple in the country. It is also one of the city's major historic attraction. The clan temple has retained its authentic historic setting, which includes an association building, a traditional theatre and the late 19th century rowhouses for clan members, all clustered around a granite-paved square. It is located in Cannon Square in the heart of the oldest part of the city of George Town, in the midst of narrow, winding lanes and quaint-looking pre-War houses exuding a palpable old world charm.
The Khoo Kongsi is a clan association of the Leong San Tong (Dragon Mountain Hall) clan, whose forefathers came from Sin Kang clan village in Hokkien province. The Khoos were among the wealthy Straits Chinese traders of 17th century Malacca and early Penang. In the 19th century, the clan complex resembled a miniature clan village, with its own self-government as well as educational, financial, welfare and social organisations. The clan temple was built in 1906 when the Khoo clan was at the height of wealth and eminence in Penang society.
The forefathers of the Khoo family who emigrated from South China built it as a clanhouse for members of the Khoo family in 1851. It was burnt down in 1894, allegedly struck by lightning, and the Chinese believed that it was due to its resemblance to the Emperor's palace, which provoked the gods. A scaled-down version was later built in 1902 and completed in 1906. Even so, the complex boasts a magnificent hall embellished with intricate carvings and richly ornamented beams of the finest wood bearing the mark of master craftsmen from China. The clan temple is dedicated to the clan's patron deities and also houses a collection of ancestral tablets. Chinese operas are still staged at the theatre during the seventh lunar month. They are a wonderful cultural experience worth witnessing.Like many such clan associations in South East Asia, Khoo Kongsi is no longer the center of important social activities and functions that it once held. Different strategies and ideas are being implemented to redefine the place of clan associations in the 21st century.

图57:Malay Mosque, Lebuh Acheh

The Acheen Street Mosque is an old mosque located at the heritage enclave of George Town. It was also called the Mesjid Jamek as well as Masjid Melayu Lebuh Acheh. The mosque was founded in 1801, making it one of the oldest mosques in Penang. The founder was Tengku Sheriff Syed Hussain Al-Aidid, an Acehnese clan leader who moved to Penang at the invitation of Captain Francis Light, and settled at what became Acheen Street.
In the 18th century, with Malacca in decline, trades along the Straits of Malacca moved northwards to Acheh. When Francis Light established the trading post in Penang, he wanted to create a Britsh trading post that rivals Acheh. To do this, he attracted merchants and traders from all over to settle in George Town. As a result, Penang had substantial communities of immigrants from Phuket, China, South India, Acheh, Arabia, and Jews from as far away as Armenia. One of these who settled here was Tengku Syed, a wealthy Achehnese merchant of Arab descent.
The Acheen Street Mosque has a Arab-style minaret with a Achehnese roof. The difference between this mosque and the other one, the Kapitan Kling nearby, is that the Acheen Street Mosque was built by a Achehnese, hence a Malay, whereas the Kapitan Kling Mosque was built by the Indian Muslims.


图58:Penang Islamic Museum

Penang Islamic Museum was created to celebrate the role and contribution of Malay leaders in the development and propagation of Islam in Penang. It also documents for posterity the history of the Malay settlement in Acheen Street and provides details on Malay personalities of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The museum is housed in the Syed Al-Attas Mansion. Syed Al-Attas Mansion was built by Syed Mohammad Al-Attas, an Achenese by descent, who built his mansion along Armenian Street. The mansion, in mid-19th century Straits Eclectic style, was built in 1860, and stands today as one of the few bungalows with Islamic elements from that era. A defender of the liberty of Acheh against the Dutch, Syed Al-Attas provided support to the Achenese resistance in the form of fire arms. His mansion was the venue for clandestine base for Achenese rebels.Syed Al-Attas was the leader of the Red Flag secret society, which is centred at Malay Town, as the Muslim settlement around Acheen Street and Armenian Street were called at that time. The Red Flag, aligned with Khian Teik Tong (read Hock Teik Cheng Sin Temple and Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi) The Red Flag society fought with the White Flag secret society in the Penang Riots of 1867. Syed Al-Attas had two wives. The first wife was from a Malay royal family while his second wife was the daughter of wealthy Straits Chinese pepper trader, Khoo Tiang Poh, who was a member of the Khoo Kongsi and the Khian Teik Tong. The marriage to Khoo Tiang Poh's daughter strengthened the alliance between the Red Flag and the Khian Teik Tong.As a result of the rioting, Syed Omar Basheer, leader of the Acheen Street Mosque, issued a fatwa outlawing the people of Islamic faith (the Malays, Achenese, Indian Muslims, etc.) from being involved in secret society activities.The mansion became the property of the Municipal Council. Restoration work was carried out on it in 1996, with technical assistance coming from the France, and financed by the Federal and State governments as well as the Municipal Council. The restoration work was honored by Badan Warisan Malaysia with a Best Project award in 1999.

图59:Sun Yat Sen Penang Base

From 1909-1911, it was the base of Dr Sun Yat Sen, leadr of the historic Chinese Revolution, and the headquarters of the Southeast Asian branch of the Tung Meng Hooi. The local Chinese of that time supported Dr Sun Yat Sen in the great movement against the Manchu government and the foreign imperialsits in Chinia. In 1911, China became the first republic in Asia and Dr Sun Yat Sen became its first provisional president.


图60:Choo Chay Keong Temple

The Choo Chay Keong Temple is the clan temple of the Yap Kongsi, located next door to it. It is located at the corner of Lebuh Armenian and Medan Cannon, in the core zone of the George Town Unesco World Heritage Site. The diminutive temple - small compared to other buildings surrounding it - was erected for the worship of the Yap clan's patron deities. The temple was built for the worship of Hoay Che Chung Wang as well as for the display of the Yap ancestral tablets.